Desmond Morton takes a new look at 1759 and all that:
Were they? What about the Canadien militia, on their bellies on the battlefield? No one had told them to flee, though doubtless some did. The rest stood behind trees where they were, shooting, like Wolfe’s men, as fast as they could reload, and hitting their obvious targets. The Frasers, sent to annihilate Montcalm’s terrified regulars, were stopped, not just once but five times by the Canadiens. So were other regulars, sent under General James Murray to stop the French retreat. Thanks to the Canadiens, Montcalm’s regulars reformed their ranks at Beauport and marched to meet the Chevalier Lévis and the rest of the French army. They then withdrew to Montreal, leaving their militia comrades to fend for themselves. On Apr. 27, 1760, at the battle of Ste. Foy, they would take on Murray’s garrison in a return engagement. They would beat the British as convincingly as Wolfe had defeated Montcalm. If a French fleet had come up the St. Lawrence, the Battle on the Plains of Abraham would hardly be worth remembering. Quebec would be French.